Tuesday, July 21, 2020

The Islamic Merchant- with a sense of spiritual and communal obligation:

The Islamic Merchant- with a sense of spiritual and communal obligation:

While reading 'Rethinking Islam & The West' I came across a passage
(Link to the book by Ahmed Keeler - geni.us/yFHXK )

He was speaking about the Islamic view of the merchant, and how pious traders were a huge cause in the spread of Islam worldwide. The pious merchant was a cornerstone of civilization. Business was a collaborative (instead of competitive) endeavour.

In the marketplace, traders who had already made sales would help drive customers to fellow traders who had yet to make sales. If one's business suffered, others in his industry would band together to help him back on his feet.

These guilds help to set prices to be fair, arbitrated disputes, trained newcomers in ethics/morals of the profession - and due to the emphasis of Islam on charity, worked to establish endowments (waqf).

The catalyst separating that system and the modern American capitalist one was the legalization of usury (interest) - this was a breakthrough for capitalism and the enabling of exploitative behaviors to make money, and viewing people as commodities

Without a larger moral compass - which comes from a Divine accountability - there is no driving force to create that sense of community seen in the merchants of old. What, exactly, would make we want to sacrifice my own comfort for the well-being of my neighbor?

In the absence of some type of stronger bond (e.g. religious community, or family), and a relentless emphasis on the individual, and pursuit of one's own happiness above all else, it would be near impossible to establish - and that's exactly what we see playing out now.

Adapted from:
https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/1285038038553329667.html?s=09

Monday, May 18, 2020

Hadiths on The virtue of ‘ilm (knowledge) over ‘ibadah (worship)

The virtue of ‘ilm (knowledge) over ‘ibadah (worship) has been proven through various Hadith narrations. Among them are the following:

1) Sayyiduna Hudhayfah ibn Yaman (radiyallahu ‘anhu) reports that Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to me:
“The reward of knowledge supersedes the reward of worship”

(Al Mu’jamul Awsat of Imam Tabarani -rahimahullah-, Hadith: 3960)
Hafiz Mundhiri (rahimahullah) has classified the above Hadith as sound (hasan).
(At Targhib, vol. 1 pg. 93)

2) Sayyiduna Abu Dharr (radiyallahu ‘anhu) reports that Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)  said to me:
“O Abu Dharr! Learning one verse of the Holy Quran is better than performing one hundred rakats of (optional) Salah, and learning one chapter of knowledge is better than performing one thousand rakats of (optional) Salah, irrespective of whether that knowledge is practiced upon or not”.

(Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 219)
Hafiz Mundhiri (rahimahullah) has graded the above Hadith as sound (hasan).
(At Targhib, vol. 1 pg. 97)

3) Sayyiduna Abu Dardaa (radiyallahu ‘anhu) reports that Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, "The superiority of the scholar over the worshiper is like the superiority of the moon over the rest of the celestial bodies. Indeed the scholars are the heirs of the Prophets."

(Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2682)

4) It was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbas said:
“The messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘One Faqih (knowledgeable man) is more formidable against the Shaitan than one thousand devoted worshipers.’”

(Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 222)

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Need for an Intellectual explanation of Deen:

Need for an Intellectual explanation of Deen:

God has chosen to create in certain men and women a type of intelligence which, by inner necessity, asks far-reaching questions about the nature of reality. This is a divine gift, though not without its dangers, as is the case with all gifts; it has, therefore, certain rights, including the right to receive answers to the questions which arise spontaneously within it.

In a sense these questions are posed by God Himself so that He may answer them and thereby enrich our understanding, and we are assured that He never gives us a genuine need without providing for its satisfaction.
Questioning minds may always and everywhere be in a mirtonity, but it is
precisely these- the questioners- who are the ultimate formers of opinion.
What the intellectuals doubt today will eventually be doubted by simple
people.

Ideas which, on their first appearance, seem most abstract and farthest removed from the affairs of ordinary men and women have a way of percolating through the whole fabric of society, though they often suffer distortion in the process.

Given the very nature of modern civilization (and the nature of its origins), the ideas current in our time are destructive of
religious faith unless this faith is protected by an intellectual armour- and intellectual weapons suited to the conditions of the late twéntieth century.

The traditional arguments in support of faith are no longer entirely effective, and it no longer seems 'natural' to believe in God and to believe in states of being beyond this present life.

Since the Quran addresses itself specifically to 'those who think' and who 'meditate' and, in effect, commands us to make full use of our mental faculties, Muslims are under an obligation to deepen and develop the intellectual bases of their faith and have no excuse for relying on unthinking obedience and emotional fervour to protect it against the searching questions of our time.

Charles Le Gai Eaton in 'Islam and the Destiny of Man'.

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Why the divorce rate is high for the career-woman - from BBC article

Getting a top job dramatically increases women’s chances of divorce, even in egalitarian countries. Why isn’t it the same for men?

Western researchers are wondering why the divorce rate is high for the career-woman.

“Promotion to a top job in politics increases the divorce rate of women but not for men, and women who become CEOs divorce faster than men who become CEOs,” summarises Johanna Rickne, a professor at Stockholm University and co-author of the research, which was published earlier this month in American Economic Journal.

The paper, which looked at the lives of heterosexual men and women working for private companies with 100 or more employees, found that married women were twice as likely to be divorced three years after their promotion to CEO level compared to their male counterparts. In the public sector, using three decades’ worth of records, women mayors and parliamentarians promoted after an election doubled their chances of splitting from their partners; 75% were still married eight years after the vote compared with 85% of those who didn’t get promoted, while there was no evidence of a similar effect for men. Female medical doctors, police officers and priests who progressed in their careers also followed the trend.

Rickne argues that although Sweden has provided the legislation and societal structures to create “the expectation that you shouldn’t need to choose between family and career”, the research reveals that what happens to families when women progress up the career ladder is often a different story.

Many couples experience “stress and friction” when there are changes in the division of their economic and social roles, for example due to the impact on the amount of leisure time they can spend together or how they divide up household tasks. But this, the research team argues, is often amplified when it is the woman who is promoted, because it creates more of a mismatch of expectations.

 (See this BBC article https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20200121-why-promoted-women-are-more-likely-to-divorce )

Junaid S. Hayat (@JunaidSHayat) nicely put it in his comments on this:
"Wonder why Allah has Commanded man to be the provider and woman to be provided for?! When this Divine Order is disturbed, of course, the consequences will be dangerous.

Some will say: "But what about Khadija (RA)" Well, a few facts:
She never stepped foot outside her house, 9-5 daily.
All her trade was done by men.
She had inherited everything from her previous husband after his death.
And by the way, Muhammad ﷺ was not her "employee", it was a Mudaraba setup, meaning capital was invested by her and business was conducted by him, and profits were split between them.

And lastly, to do great things, a woman does not have to mimic the man. Her value is in her own role as a woman, a nurture and homemaker, who is the base for family and human civilization."


Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Azan in new born baby's ears and who can give this Azan & its requirements:

Azan in new born baby's ears and who can give this Azan & its requirements:

Answer
(By Maulana Immad Bin Arshad; Checked and Approved by, Mufti Ebrahim Desai. www.daruliftaa.net)

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

The recitation of Azan and Iqamah in a new born baby's ear is regarded to be Sunnah[1]. The Blessed Nabi ﷺ has performed this act upon Hasan Radiyallahu Anhu. Take the following Hadith into consideration:

سنن أبي داود (5/ 518)دار اليسر

رَأَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ «أَذَّنَ فِي أُذُنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ حِينَ وَلَدَتْهُ فَاطِمَةُ بِالصَّلَاةِ

Abu Rafi’ saw Nabi ﷺ perform Azan in the ear of Hasan RA when Fatimah gave birth to him (Abu Dawud V.5 Pg.518 Darul Yusr)

A male family member of the new born child should recite the Azan and Iqamah upon the child. If a male member is not present then any female member can recite the Azan and Iqamah upon the child, even it be the child’s mother[2].

The procedure of performing Azan and Iqamah in a new born baby’s ears is as follows:

The baby should face towards the Qibla.

The Azan should be recited normally in the right side of the baby’s ear.

The Iqamah should be recited normally in the left side of the baby’s ear[3].

Note: It is not necessary for the one who is performing the Azan to put his/her finger in his/her ears. This is only done when one his reciting the Azan loudly to call people for prayer. However, in this case one does not need to say Azan in a loud voice.[4]

However, when reciting Azan and Iqamah, one should recite Hayya Alas Salaah of the Azaan and Iqamah in the right ear of the child and Hayya Alal Falaah in the left ear of the child[5].

Time limit for azan:

(By Darul Ifta, Darul Uloom Deoband, Fatwa: 411/376/SN=06/1436)

Hadith records no time for the azan and iqamah that is said in the right and left ears of a newborn baby. However, it is learnt from the words of Hadith and by the commentary of Hadith scholars that it should be given immediately after the birth or up to seven days.[6]

What if this Azan was not given?

Neither it is fardh nor wajib to say azan or iqamah in the ears of a baby, rather it is a desirable deed. Hence if you did not say azan and iqamah for your children due to ignorance of the matter, then there is no harm.

References:

[1] فتاوى محمودية ج5 ص455 الفاروقية
فتاوى حقانية ج3 ص67 حقانية

[2] فتاوي محمودية ج5 ص455 الفاروقية
الأصل المعروف بالمبسوط للشيباني (1/ 115)دار ابن حزم 
قلت أَرَأَيْت الْقَوْم تؤذن لَهُم الْمَرْأَة فصلوها بأذانها وإقامتها
قَالَ أكره لَهُم ذَلِك فَإِن فعلوا أجزاهم

[3] كتاب الفتاوى ج2 ص154 زمزم ببلش
آب كي مسائل ج2 ص209 مكتبة لدهيانوى
تقريرات الرافعى ج1 ص45 سعيد

[4] فتاوى محمودية ج5 ص454 الفاروقية

[5] احسن الفتاوى ج2 ص276 سعيد

[6] و عن أبى رافع – رضي الله عنه – قال: رأيت رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – أذن في أذن الحسن بن علي – رضي الله عنهما – حين ولدته فاطمة بالصلاة رواه الترمذى وأبو داؤد ….. وفى شرح السنة: روى أن عمر بن عبدالعزيز ري الله عنه – كان يؤذن فى اليمنى ويقيم فى اليسرى إذا ولد الصبي، قلت قد جاء فى مسند ابى يعلى الموصلي الخ وقال القاري – رحمة الله – قبل السطر تحت “حين ولدته” يحتل السابع وقبله الخ (مرقاة مع المشكاة، باب العقيقة، رقم 4157)

Allah knows Best!

Friday, November 22, 2019

Knowledge and Scientific Research: an Islamic perspective

Importance of knowledge in Islam:

Islam provided great impetus for the human pursuit of knowledge. The first verse that descended on the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ Was Iqra, meaning "read,” opening the door to read, write, and ponder. The Quran urges the mankind to think, ponder, reflect and acquire knowledge that would bring them closer to God and his creation. 

The Quran uses repetition to embed certain key concepts in the consciousness of its listeners. Allah (God) and Rab (the Sustainer) are repeated 2,800 and 950 times, respectively, in the Quran; Ilm (knowledge) comes third with 750 mentions.

The Quran lays so much importance on knowledge that God commanded his Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to pray for increase in knowledge:
...say, "My Lord, increase me in knowledge."
-Quran (20:114)

Categories Of knowledge:

Knowledge is divided into two categories: 

a. ‘Ilm e Naafi’ – Beneficial knowledge 
b. ‘Ilm e Ghair Naafi` – Non-beneficial knowledge. 

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, “Ask Allah for beneficial knowledge and seek refuge in Allah from knowledge without benefit.”
Source: Sunan Ibn Mājah 3843 (Grade: Hasan)

Nabi ﷺ himself used to do Du’aa for ‘Ilm e Naafi`:
“Oh Allah! I ask you for beneficial knowledge”. -Ibn Majah

And he ﷺ sought refuge from ‘Ilm e Ghair Naafi’: 
“Oh Allah! I seek your protection from non-beneficial knowledge”. -Sahih Muslim

It's to be noted that Islam includes both the worldly knowledge and the religious knowledge in both the above categories. So beneficial scientific knowledge and research is included in the first category of desirable beneficial knowledge.

So our learning and research efforts should be only in those things which are beneficial and constructive and not of a purposeless or destructive nature.

Research as perpetual charity:

Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) said,
“When a man dies, his good deeds come to an end except three: ongoing charity, beneficial knowledge (he leaves behind), and righteous offspring who will pray for him.” (Muslim)

So, doing research and leaving behind knowledge which is beneficial for mankind will keep on multiplying one's good deeds even after one's death.

The aim of research:

The most important goal of studying and researching the creation is to know the reality and attain the knowledge of the Creator. The Quran says,

"We shall show them Our signs in the universe and within themselves, until it becomes clear to them that this is the Truth". -Quran (41:53)

"Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are signs for those of understanding." -Quran (3:190)

Secondly, our research efforts should be to benefit the humanity and to attain the pleasure of God through it.

This is amply demonstrated in a prayer the prophet ﷺ taught us to pray to God not to make the worldly material gains as the ultimate goal of gaining knowledge:

اللهم لا تجعل الدنيا أكبر همنا ولا مبلغ علمنا ولا غاية رغبتنا

"O Allah!  let not worldly affairs (Dunya) be our principal concern (greatest aim), nor the ultimate limit of our knowledge nor the limit of our aspiration."
-Tirmidhi & Nasai 

Islamic concept of knowledge is unique as it is fundamentally based on a form of humility that one will be inspired by truth only when one turns to the Creator of knowledge (God) whilst demonstrating to Him the effort one has exerted in attaining it! My Lord increase me in knowledge!

One of the all time great Muslim scientists and the greatest medieval physician- Ibn Sina never slept the night fully in the period he was busy with ilm. His days were exclusively reserved for studying. When an issue emerged which he couldn't make sense of, he would make wudhu, go to the mosque, pray and make dua to Allah that he makes that issue easier for him and open to him the elusive details of the issue. He was among the leading scholars in knowledge, intellect, and productivity.
-Safahat min Sabri'l Ulama, p. 131.

Today all the misuse of science and technology occurs due to pursuing knowledge for purely materialistic or narrow nationalistic or capitalist purposes, removing God and humanity from the equation.

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Allah's Punishment on the Muslim community for not following proper rules of talaq:

Allah's Punishment on the Muslim community for not following proper rules of talaq:

In Surah Baqara, while giving the rules regarding divorce, Allah warns:

"When you have divorced women, and they have approached (the end of) their waiting periods (iddat), then, either retain them with fairness or release them with fairness. Do not retain them with wrongful intent, resulting in cruelty on your part, and whoever does this, actually wrongs himself.
*Do not take the verses of Allah in jest* , and remember the grace of Allah on you and what He has revealed to you of the Book and the wisdom, giving you good counsel thereby, and fear Allah, and be sure that Allah is the One who knows everything ."  (2:231)

So Allah is warning against cruelty and unfair treatment of the wives in matters of divorce and cautions men that not following the correct Islamic rules of divorce is actually making fun of Quran* which is a very serious issue. And repeatedly Allah asks us to fear Him in the verses dealing with divorce.

But unfortunately our community has made a mockery of Allah's commands regarding talaq (as mentioned in this verse) and this has in turn made our community a target of ridicule and mockery by the non-muslims whose religion doesn't even have a concept of divorce!
This is nothing but Allah's punishment.