Sunday, August 7, 2016

Fiqh of financially supporting one’s parents and other relatives:

Fiqh of financially supporting one’s parents and other relatives:

It is necessary (wajib) upon an individual that he supports his parents and grandparents, if they are poor, and provided that he is capable of doing so.

Allah Most High says:

“Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of contempt, nor repel them, but address them in terms of honour.” (Surah al-Isra, V. 23)

Sayyida A’isha (Allah be pleased with her) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “The most pure (of earnings) is what a man consumes from his own earnings, and his child is from his earnings.” (Sunan Tirmidhi, no. 1382, Sunan Abu Dawud & Sunan Ibn Majah, no. 2137)

It is stated in al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya:

“A wealthy son will be obligated to spend on his poor parents, whether they are Muslims or otherwise, and whether they are capable of earning themselves or otherwise.” (al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, 1/564)

Imam al-Mawsili (Allah have mercy on him) states in his renowned al-Ikhtiyar:

“The Nafaqah (financial support) of the parents and grandparents is on the male and female children, for Allah Most High says: “say not to them a word of contempt” (Surah al-Isra). Thus, Allah Most High forbade the child from harming the parents even to this extent, and to not spend on them when they are in need is more harmful than this…..And Allah Most High says: “We have enjoined on man kindness to parents” (al-Ankabut, V. 8), and it is not from kindness to leave them in need despite having the capability to remove their need. And Allah Most High says regarding non-Muslim parents: “And bear them company in this life with consideration” (Luqman, V. 15), and it is inconsiderate to leave one’s parents hungry despite having the means to feed them….” (al-Ikhtiyar li Ta’lil al-Mukhtar, 2/231-232)

In light of the above, it becomes clear that it is the responsibility of the children to financially support their parents provided two conditions are met:

1) One is financially in a position to do so. Imam al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him) elaborates on this by stating:

“And it (m: financial support) is necessary (wajib) on the child who is wealthy, even if he is young, wealthy to the extent that Sadaqa al-Fitr becomes Wajib on him.” (See: Radd al-Muhtar ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar, 3/621)

2) One’s parents are poor, even if they are capable of earning themselves. Imam al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him) explains:

“One will be responsible for financially supporting one’s parents if they are poor, even if they are capable of earning…” (ibid, 3/623)

In a case where the poor father has more than one child, then all the children will be equally responsible to support their parents. It is stated in al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya:

“If a poor person has two children, one being very wealthy and the other is the owner of the Nisab (m: which necessitates one to pay Sadaqa al-Fitr), then the responsibility of supporting the father will be equally shared by both of them.” (al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, 1/565)

As far as daughters are concerned, they also have an equal responsibility of supporting their parents, but this is when they earn, have their own money and are capable of doing so. (ibid, 1/564)

With regards to one’s mother, the responsibility of supporting her will be on her husband. However, if her husband (one’s father) is poor, then one will be supporting her by supporting the father. If she does not have a husband, then one will be obliged to support her, if she is poor. (Radd al-Muhtar, 3/623)

As far as the other relatives are concerned, we can divide them into two categories:

1) Male relatives, such as one’s brother, uncle, nephew, etc. The responsibility of financially supporting them is only in the situation where they are poor and not capable of earning themselves due to some disability or illness. Imam al-Mawsili (Allah have mercy on him) states in al-Ikhtiyar:

“The Nafaqah (financial support) of other relatives besides the parents and children is (also) necessary according to the amount of inheritance (mirath)….And this is only necessary when the relative is poor, disabled and not able to earn.” (al-Ikhtiyar li Ta’lil al-Mukhtar, 2/232)

2) Female relatives, such as one’s sisters, aunty, etc. The responsibility of supporting them is conditioned only with them being poor and in need. Disability is not a condition, for women are not obliged to work and earn money.

It is stated in al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya:

“The Nafaqah of virgin female relatives is necessary even if they are healthy, provided they are in need of the Nafaqah.” (al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, 1/566)

However, if a woman is married, then she will be supported by her husband, hence the responsibility of supporting her will be lifted from her relatives. In al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, it is further stated:

“The husband will be solely responsible in supporting his wife, so much so that if a woman has a husband who is poor (m: and not capable of supporting her) but has a son, from a previous husband, who is wealthy or a wealthy father or a wealthy brother, her financial support will still remain on her husband, and not on her father, son and brother. However, her father, son or brother will be ordered to spend on her, and then recover it from the husband when he becomes well-off.” (ibid)

In conclusion, the son is responsible to support his parents if they are poor and in need, and that he is capable of doing so. He is responsible to support his male relatives if they are poor and disabled; and female relatives if they are in need. A woman will always be supported by her husband if she is married and not her brother, father, etc.

The husband’s first responsibility is to support his wife and children. The reason being is that the responsibility of supporting one’s wife is unconditional. One must provide for one’s wife regardless of whether she is in need or otherwise and regardless of whether one is capable or otherwise. The Nafaqah of the wife is not waived away by one being poor. Hence, his first responsibility will be supporting his wife.

However, if his parents are poor or his sisters are poor and unmarried, then he will be obliged to support them also. 

In al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, it is stated that if a man has a father and son, and he is only capable of supporting one of them, then he will support his son first. (1/565)

It is also stated:

“If a man has a wife, children and poor parents, then he will be obliged to include his father in his daily providing, thus the father will be considered to be one of his family members (m: meaning those under his care).” (ibid)

At times, parents demand from their sons even if they (parents) are rich and wealthy themselves. In such a situation, the son will not be obliged to support them. At the same time, however, one will need to respect them and give them their rights of politeness, good treatment, etc. Also, it would be good to give them something occasionally even when one is not responsible of supporting them.

The man, who is obligated to support his wife, children and is also responsible to support his parents, etc, will have to balance things out in a proper manner. His primary concern will be his wife and children, but at the same time he must support his poor parents. 

One should always keep the following statement of Salman (Allah be pleased with him) in mind:

“Give everyone who has a right their full rights.” The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “Salman spoke the truth,” when he heard this. (Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim)

And Allah knows best

[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam
Darul Iftaa
Leicester , UK

- Adapted from http://www.daruliftaa.com/node/5694?txt_QuestionID

Monday, June 20, 2016

Their main target- our children!

Their main target- our children!

One way to defeat the relentless onslaught of attacks on our faith, attacks on our sacred texts, attacks on the dignity of our Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam), attacks on our women, attacks on the clothes we wear and attacks on our sacred language, is to deny the instigators their ultimate target, which is our children.  
They have made our children their primary target.

Put your ears to ground and you will hear them say that this is a "generational struggle".  

What this means is that they have given up on trying to take me and you away from Islam but the effort is now firmly focused on disconnecting the next generation from the legacy of the Prophets of Allah and from the heritage of received wisdom in Islam.

Creating distance between our children and the Quran/Sunnah is vital to their effort. Do not allow them that chance.  

Fortify your children’s hearts with the Quran and preserve your sacred knowledge by making sure your children will able to teach it to your grandchildren.

-Extracted from an article by Shaikh Dr. Riyad Nadwi 

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

The Prophet’s first command to the Muslims in Madina:

The Prophet’s first command to the Muslims when he arrived in Medina after Hijrat:

Abdullah ibn Salam رضي الله ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽٰ عنه  said: When the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, came to Medina, the people rushed towards him and it was said, “The Messenger of Allah has come!” I came along with the people to see him, and when I looked at the face of the Messenger of Allah, I realized that his face was not the face of a liar. 
The first thing he said was:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ أَفْشُوا السَّلَامَ وَأَطْعِمُوا الطَّعَامَ وَصَلُّوا بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّاسُ نِيَامٌ تَدْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ بِسَلَامٍ

"O people, spread Salaam, feed the hungry, and pray at night when people are sleeping and you will enter Paradise in peace."

Source: Sunan Ibn Majah 1334, Grade: Sahih, Also in Tirmidhi, mishkat, etc

*Note:

*The very first command given to the Muslims in Madina after hijrat of the Holy Prophet ﺻﻠﯽ الله ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽٰ ﻋﻠﯿﮧ ﻭﺍٓﻟﮧ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ as a ruler of the city wasn't political, it was social and highly spiritual. And the community was made to focus on the individual goal of Jannah.

Food for thought!

Monday, May 23, 2016

Duas for protecting one's Imaan and Living and Dying on Islam

Duas for steadfastness on Deen upto the end of one’s life:

No one is safe from misguidance. So remember to constantly ask Allah to keep you on the straight path.

The 3 Duas given below should be read daily for this purpose of protecting one's Imaan and Living and Dying on Islam:
------------------
رَبَّنَا لَا تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ

[Who say], "Our Lord, let not our hearts deviate after You have guided us and grant us from Yourself mercy. Indeed, You are the Bestower."
 [Qur’an- Surah Aal ‘Imraan 3:8]

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) often used to say:
«يَا مُقَلِّبَ الْقُلُوبِ ثَبِّتْ قَلْبِي عَلَى دِينِك» 
(Yaa Muqallibal Quloob Thabbit Qalbee ‘alaa Deenik) 
“O Turner of the hearts, make my heart steadfast in adhering to Your religion.”
(Tirmidhi (2140), Ibn Majah; graded Sahih)

The prophet ﺻﻠﯽ الله ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽٰ ﻋﻠﯿﮧ ﻭﺍٓﻟﮧ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ  said:
اللَّهُمَّ مُصَرِّفَ الْقُلُوبِ صَرِّفْ قُلُوبَنَا عَلَى طَاعَتِكَ
Allāhumma Musarrif al-Qulūbi Sarrif Qulūbana 'alā Tā'atika
"O Allah, Turner of the hearts, direct our hearts to Your obedience."
(Sahih Muslim)

Friday, May 6, 2016

Rabi Ibn Amer رضي الله ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽٰ عنه explains the mission of Islam to the Persian King, Rustum:

Rabi Ibn Amer رضي الله ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽٰ عنه  explains the mission of Islam to the Persian King, Rustum:

At the head of the Persian army Rustam marched against Qadisiyya and encamped on the east bank of the Ateeq. The Muslim forces lay entrenched at Qadisiyya on the west bank of the Ateeq.

Rustam the Commander-in-Chief of the Persian forces sent a message to the Muslim Commander Saad bin Abi Waqqaas رضي الله ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽٰ عنه  asking him to send an emissary for talks. Saad deputed Rabi bin Amir as the envoy. 

Rabi crossed the bridge and made for the camp of Rustam. Rabi appeared before Rustam wearing a coat of shining mail over which was wrapped a coarse woollen cloak. Around his head was a veil held by thongs of a camel's girth. His sword hung at his side in a sheath of coarse cloth. In his right hand he carried his spear. Rabi mounted on a shaggy horse arrived at the edge of the carpet at which Rustam and his couriers were seated.

The Persians wanted Rabi to lay aside his arms. Rabi said, "I have not come to you to lay down my weapons. You invited me, and I have come, if you do not wish me to come the way I like, I shall return."

Rustam asked his men to let the Muslim come the way he wished.

When Rustum, the king of persia asked the Muslims, why had they come to Persia? 

Rabiah Ibn 'Amir said “Allah Azza wa jal has sent us to deliver you from worshiping the creation to worshiping the Creator of the creation and to deliver you from the constriction of this world to the vastness of this world and the hereafter and from the oppression of the religions to the justice of Islam. Allah Azza wa jal has sent us to save you from worshiping each other.”

Rabi said that their mission was to spread Islam. He said, "If you accept Islam we are brothers and there is peace between us; if you refuse we fight you and leave things to God."

"What do you expect in return", asked Rustam.

Rabi said, "Victory if we survive, and Paradise if we die fighting in the way of Allah".

Rustam said that he should be allowed some time to think over the matter further.

Rabi said that according to a tradition of the Holy Prophet he could give him a time of three days.

"Are you their chief", asked Rustam.
Rabi said, "No, but the Muslims are like one body, and the lowest is equal to the highest."

From :
Hadrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, Ali (ra) 4 Vol. Set by Professor Masud-ul-Hasan, Islamic Publications, Lahore, Pakistan

Tuesday, February 2, 2016

Key to Unite the Ummah and limits of Dawah- Not hastening to tell someone he is wrong:

Key to Unite the Ummah and limits of Dawah- Not hastening to tell someone he is wrong:

 Umar رضي الله ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽٰ عنه relates: “I heard Hisham ibn Hakim ibn Hizaam reciting Surah al-Furqan during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). I listened to his recitation, and he was reciting it differently to the way that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to recite it. I nearly interrupted his prayer, but I waited until he had said the salaam, then I grabbed him by his cloak and said, ‘Who taught you to recite this surah I heard you reciting?’ He said, ‘The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) taught me to recite it.’ I said, ‘You are lying! The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) taught me to recite it differently.’ I took him to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and said, ‘I heard him reciting Surah al-Furqan differently than the way you taught me to recite it.’ 

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, 
‘Let him go. Recite, O Hisham.’ He recited it as I had heard him recite it. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, ‘This is how it was revealed.’ Then he said, ‘Recite, O ‘Umar.’ So I recited it as he had taught me. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, ‘This is how it was revealed. This Qur’an was revealed with seven ways of recitation, so recite it in the way that is easiest for you.’ ” (Reported by al-Bukhari, al-Fath, 4992).

Notes:

-This Hadith supports the famous rule of Fiqh- 'There is no prohibiting in a matter of valid difference of opinion' which means that you can not stop or reprimand someone if what he is doing is correct according to other legitimate scholars. 

-Dawah among Muslims to change their Fiqh to another Fiqh approach is not correct. Dawah is towards the universal values of Islam. If we keep this in mind then most of our unnecessary debates and bickering will vanish and our debaters can use their energy and time to defend Islam against the kafirs and anti Islamic propaganda and prove the truth of Islam before the world.

-Those who try to undermine established Fiqh practices by starting debates on Daleel and Hadeeth proofs among the masses are not doing Dawah. They are actually causing Fitna and disunity and wasting the resources of the Ummah.

-A person who is seeking knowledge should not be too hasty to condemn any opinion that differs from that with which he is familiar; he should first be sure of what he is saying, because that opinion may turn out to be a valid scholarly opinion. 

-Many rules in Islam have a possibility of more than one way of interpretation, hence it is quite possible that someone who is doing it differently is also correct.

-The greater a person's knowledge, the more accommodating he becomes to different approaches in following the Deen. It is a lack of deep knowledge that makes one narrow minded and fanatic.

Wednesday, January 20, 2016

Lessons on Adab (Respect)

A Few Lessons on Adab (Respect)


It is a famous statement of the ‘Ulama:
Those who succeeded did so through their adab (respect) and those who failed did so because of the lack of respect”
(Adabul ikhtilaf fi masaailil ‘lmi wad deen, pg.192)
قال الإمام الزرنوجي رحمه الله
ما وصل من وصل إلا بالحرمة، وما سقط من سقط إلا بترك الحرمة
(Ta’leemul Muta’allim of Imam Zarnuji (rahimahullah), pg.46, ibid)

Here are a few examples of those who succeeded:
  1. Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) said:
ما مددت رجلي نحو دار أستاذي حماد بن أبي سليمان إجلالاً له، وكان بين داره وداري سبع سكك
“I never stretched my leg in the direction of the house of my teacher, Hammad ibn Abi Sulaiman, although I was seven blocks away from his house
(‘Uqudul Jumman; Adabul Ikhtilaf fi masailil ‘ilmi wad deen, pg. 172 & Ma’alim irshadiyyah, pg.172)

  1. Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah) says: “When I arrived in Madinah, I saw the reverence and awe that Imam Malik (rahimahullah) commanded. This increased my respect for him to an extent that at times while in his presence I would turn the page as gently as possible out of fear that I may disturb him” (ibid)

  1. The student of Imam Shafi’i; Imam Rabee’ ibn Sulaiman (rahimahumallah) says: “By Allah! I had such respect for Imam Shafi’i that I never had the courage to even drink water in his presence.” (ibid)

This reminds me of a narration in Sahih Muslim (hadith:317) in which Sayyiduna ‘Amr ibn ‘As (radiyallahu ‘anhu) states:
“I never stared at the face of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) out of awe for him, and therefore cannot describe him fully”

The Ripple effect
My Esteemed Teacher, Al-Muhaddith Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwamah (may Allah protect him) writes: “Those who sit in the company of the ‘Ulama will definitely learn to respect them”
“One who never acquired knowledge from the ‘Ulama, and didn’t spend abundant time with them, and hasn’t learnt how to respect them, how could he understand the value of the ‘Ulama?!
For such a person to speak or write against the ‘Ulama in a disrespectful manner is not surprising…”
(Adabul ikhtilaf, pg.172 & Ma’alim irshadiyyah, pg.172)
It is therefore imperative for us stick to the company of dignified people, or else we risk losing our own respect.
Respect for their associates
Imam Zarnuji (rahimahullah) writes: “Part of respect for one’s teacher is to show respect to the teacher’s children and other associates. The author of Al-Hidayah (A higher book of Hanafi fiqh) mentioned that one of the ‘Ulama of Bukhara was seated in the masjid while delivering a lesson. During the lesson he kept standing for short intervals. When he was asked about this he replied:
“My Teachers’ son is playing with other kids on the road and he sometimes runs past the door of the Masjid, so I stand for him out of respect for my teacher!”
(Ta’limul Muta’allim; see Ma’alim Irshadiyyah of Shaykh ‘Awwamah, pg. 232 & Husn Adab of Moulana Habibur Rahman Al-A’zami)

A Recent Lesson
The following incident is among the first lessons of adab that I learnt from my Respected Teacher, Al-Muhaddith Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwamah (may Allah allow me to continue benefitting from him):
“I (Shaykh ‘Awwamah) once visited the late Mufti Mahmoodul Hasan Al-Gangohi (rahimahullah) when he was visiting Madinah Munawwarah. As the time of Magrib salah got closer, someone asked Mufti Mahmood (rahimahullah) if he needed to perform wudhu before the salah. Mufti sahib (rahimahullah) replied:
كيف أجالس هذا العالم وأنا على غير وضوء؟
How could I sit in the company of this ‘Alim without already being in the state of wudhu?!
After relating this, Shaykh (may Allah protect him) expressed his humility saying: “I don’t deserve this but look at the respect of this senior ‘Alim.”
Note
It was a common habit of my Honourable Teacher to personally visit the senior ‘Ulama whenever he learnt of their arrival in Madinah Munawwarah. Despite him being a senior himself…

Even the Animals have respect
Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwamah (may Allah protect him) writes: “You may be surprised to hear that even Animals have respect for seniors.” Shaykh then cited the verse of the Quran which mentions the address of the ant in the era of Nabi Sulayman (‘alaihis salam): “Let not Sulayman and his army trample you unknowingly” (Surah Naml, verse: 18)
He says: “due to the respect of the ant, it sought an excuse for the army by saying that if they do trample you it will be unintentional!” (Adabul ikhtilaf, pg.193)

Contempt to those who were disrespectful
Once Imam Ahmad ibn Hambal (rahimahullah) angrily reprimanded a reliable scholar for his disrespect to Imam ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Mahdi (rahimahullah) with the words:
مالك ويلك ولذكر الأئمة
“What is the matter with you?! Woe on to you for saying (such disrespectful things) about the Imams!”
(Adabul ikhtilaf, pg.155)

Ibn ‘Asakir (rahimahullah) once heard one of his teachers being disrespectful towards the scholars of the past. He said to his teacher:
إنما نحترمك ما احترمت الأئمة
“I will only respect you as long as you maintain respect for the Imams!”
(Adabul ikhtilaf, pg.155)

When Imam Muslim (rahimahullah) heard derogatory statements from his teacher, Muhammad ibn Yahya Az-Zhuhli (rahimahullah) concerning his other teacher; Imam Bukhari (rahimahullah), He (Imam Muslim) immediately got up and left the gathering. He later returned to Imam Zhuhli all the narrations that he had acquired from him. (Hadyus sari, pg.685)
We will follow respect, wherever it takes us….
Are we equal?
Some people use the following slogan to legitamise their disrespect with the earlier scholars:
هم رجال ونحن رجال
“We are men like them”
This is a sign of extreme ignorance. A slight look at history and the biographies of the pious predecessors will easily show that there is no comparison between us and them whatsoever. The great Historian, biographer and Muhaddith; ‘Allamah Dhahabi (rahimahullah) writes: “There is no senior Muhaddith in my era (the 700s A.H.) that can match the knowledge of those in the earlier times” (Tazkiratul Huffaz, pg.628)
He also writes in the biography of Imam Al-Ismai’ily (rahimahullah): “I was astounded at the memory of this imam, and I have concluded that the latter day scholars have no hope of catching up with the earlier ones (the Mutaqaddimun) (Tazkiratul Huffaz, pg.948)
Al-Muhaddith Al-‘Alai (rahimahullah) has also said: “none after them could match them or even come close!” (Fathul Mugheeth, vol.2 pg.102)
Conclusion
The above are a few drops from an ocean full of lessons on this topic. Respect seems so distant in our era; an era full of unpleasant surprises!
Moreover, it is somehow much easier for people to be disrespectful online, since they find themselves in an uncontrolled environment. Do not fall into this hole, it’s bottomless!!
Let’s all take lesson from what has been discussed above .
May Allah Ta’ala guide us too.