Sunday, January 27, 2013

Becareful when speaking about the Ulema and Awliya-Allah

The gravity of the sin of contempt and malice towards the Righteous Ulema and Awliya-Allah

The Blessed Prophet [saws] said "Whoever bears malice towards Allah’s wali, Allah will declare war upon him." (Sahih Bukhari

Ponder upon the words, “I declare war upon one who bears malice towards my wali.” 
Would anyone who prepares himself for war against Allah be successful in this world, let alone in the hereafter? 
The message of this hadith is narrated with various wordings which indicate that the Blessed Prophet [saws] relayed this message to us in different times and in different circumstances. The aforementioned hadith is the narration of Abu Hurairah RA as related in Bukhari. 
This narration is also by Aishah RA, Maimuna RA, Muadh RA, Anas bin Malik RA, Usama bin Zaid RA, and Wahab Bin Munaba RA. In another narration it says, ‘whosoever bothers my 'wali', has prepared himself for war against me.’ In a different narration the words are, ‘whoever ridicules my wali, challenges Me.’” (Fath-ul-Bari) 

Imam Nawawi writes in Sharhul-Muhazzab: 

"It is narrated in Bukhari that Allah said, “I declare war upon the one who troubles my wali.” Khatib Baghdadi relates from Imam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullahi alayh) and Imam Shafi'i (rahmatullahi alayh) that “If the fuqaha (jurists) and ulema (scholars) are not the Auliyah of Allah, then nobody is a wali of Allah .” Abdullah bin Abbas RA says, “Anyone who troubles a faqih troubles the Blessed Prophet [saws]” 

Ahmed Ibn Athir writes in Jaami'-ul-Usool: 

"To be contemptuous of the Sufia who follow the Sunnah, destroy the bida, hold knowledge of the Deen and are pious in their actions, and who are the keepers of the esoteric meanings, is a disaster. In Islam, the threat against one who holds hard feelings against them is severe. What a dangerous position, to be in war with Allah . It is bearable if ones ears are cut, eyes gouged, and legs and arms broken in punishment for this heinous crime, because the difficulties and pains of this world will end. If this happened to someone, at least the doors of repentance are still open, but what is one to do if he is corrupted in his Deen? The scholars say that aside from these two (Riba and malice towards the Auliya), no other sin has been recorded which incites war with Allah . It indicates the graveness of these two sins and that a person involved in them may die in the state of kufr.” (Mirqat-Commentary on Mishkat- by Imam Mulla Ali Qari RA) 

The Blessed Prophet [saws] said, “The one whom Allah befriends cannot be humiliated and no person whom Allah makes his enemy can have any respect.” (Tirmidhi) 

Anas bin Maalik RA narrates that Rasulullah [saws] said: "Indeed, the example of the 'Ulama is like that of stars in the sky, by which guidance is obtained in the darkness of the land and water..." (Musnad Ahmad)

Rasulullah Sallalahualaihiwassallam said, “The virtue of an Alim to a worshipper (Aabid) is similar to the virtue of the moon when it is full to the rest of the stars. And verily the Ulema are the inheritors of the Prophets. Verily the Prophets did not leave behind dirhams and deenars, but rather they left behind knowledge. ” – Authentic, narrated by Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah. 

The Holy prophet [saws] prophesized regarding the current fitna of people abandoning the Ulema and following the non-qualified leaders as-
"...the people will take the ignorant as leaders, who are asked for and who give Islamic legal opinion without knowledge, misguided and misguiding." (Sahih Bukhari)

It is reported that Imam Abdullâh bin-Mubârak – Allâh have mercy on him – said:
It is right that an intelligent person does not undervalue three [types of people]: the scholars, the rulers, and [his Muslim] brothers. Whoever undervalues the scholars will lose his afterlife, whoever undervalues the rulers will lose his worldly life, and whoever undervalues his brothers loses his good character and conduct. [Al-Dhahabî, Siyar A’lâm Al-Nubalâ`17:251.]

Awn bin Abdullah said: I said to (Ameer ul Momineen) Umar bin Abdul Aziz:It is said: 'Indeed if you are able to become a scholar, then become a scholar, and if you are unable, then become a student, and if you are unable to become a student, then love them, if you are unable to love them, then do not have hatred towards them' so 'Umar bin 'Abdul Azeez replied, 'Subhaan Allaah! Allaah the Mighty and Majestic has even given this one an exit.
[Narrated by Abu Khaythama, Faswi in Muarifat al Tareekh 3/398,399, Ibne Abdul Bar in Jame Byan al Ilm 1.142-143]
*                   *                   *


The scholars list tormenting or troubling the Auliya-Allah as a major sin since doing so can lead to kufr and is foreshadowed with a dire threat. 

Imam Dhahabi writes in his book Kitabul-Kabair: 

The 51st major sin is tormenting the Auliya-Allah and bearing malice against them. Allah says: "Verily, those who annoy Allah and His Messenger, Allah has cursed them in this world, and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating punishment. And those who annoy believing men and women undeservedly, bear on themselves the crime of slander and plain sin". (Ahzaab 57:58)

The Blessed Prophet [saws] stated that Allah said, “I have declared war upon him who makes an enemy of my wali.” (Bukhari) And in another narration of Bukhari, “He invites Me (Allah) to war.”
The Blessed Prophet [saws] said, “O Abu Bakr ! If you incensed the poor muhajireen (i.e. those who migrated from Mecca) you have incensed your lord.” (Kitabul-Kabair)

Hafiz bin Hajar writes in his book on major sins, Al-Zawajir An Qataratil-Kabair:

 “The 65th major sin is tormenting the Auliya-Allah and making them an enemy.” After this, he mentions the hadith of Bukhari and of the declaration of war against one who makes the Auliya-Allah his enemy. Then Hafiz bin Hajjar says: "Some scholars have classified this as a major sin since the dire threat is mentioned so explicitly in the Qur’an. And really, what could be a greater threat than the fact that one is inciting war with Allah? Nothing indeed is so damning as to declare war against Allah, except for the person who deals in usury.
It is obvious that a person whom Allah declares His enemy can never succeed (may Allah I save us). The consequences of declaration of war against Allah can be nothing less than dying in kufr. May Allah save us from this through his infinite kindness and mercy.
Further, he writes, “I have read in the book, Al-Khadim by Zarkashi, that after mentioning the hadith of Bukhari, he writes, ‘Notice that the threat issued against this person is the very same as the one who deals in usury.’”

Hafiz Ibn Asakar writes:

"O brother! May Allah grant us the ability to perform good deeds and may He guide us on the straight path. The flesh of the scholars is extremely poisonous. It is the way of Allah that He cuts down those who insult them and corrupts the heart of those who expose their faults. Allah says in the Qur’an:
And let those who conspire to evade orders beware lest a fitnah strike them or a painful punishment. (Surah Nur: 63)

Ali Shari’ wrote a comprehensive treatise on the subject of those who make the Auliya-Allah their enemy and ridicule them. He writes in his book, Al-Zawajir fi Tahzir min Al-Kabair, the 51st major sin is tormenting the Auliya-Allah and making them one’s enemy. He writes: 

"Auliya-Allah is the plural of wali. Wali is a person who loves Allah and obeys Him; a wali is knowledgeable in Deen and worships in sincerity."
Ali Shari’ continues narrating the same ahadith and ayah as mentioned above. In the end, he summarizes in these words: 
"Making one of the Auliya-Allah an enemy, deriding them, treating them rudely, and verbally lashing at them, are all indications of the prevalence of ignorance. A sign of the Day of Judgment is when low-level and ignorant people will take positions of authority and the pious (mutaqeen) will be disregarded. The Blessed Prophet [saws] said, “The Day of Judgment will not come until the lowly and vile, and those whose fathers and grandfathers were lowly and vile, are considered the most fortunate of all people."

Remember, hurting the Auliya-Allah and making them enemies are declarations of war against Allah and a challenge to His greatness. How can those who challenge Allah be successful?

Keeping a grudge against the Auliya-Allah is such a wicked act that it comprises a major sin. Such a person is heaving destruction upon his head, and nothing good can be expected in the outcome of a person against whom Allah has declared war.

Shaikh Muhammad Zakariya was emphatic about loving the Auliya-Allah, staying in their company, avoiding deriding them and creating discontent in their hearts. He carried this message throughout all of his books. At one point he says, 

“This is one of the most sensitive and frightening matters. Whether they are ulema, muhaditheen, fuqaha, or Sufia, deriding them is certainly a blasphemy. Allah says in the Qur’an: “And the forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen and the Ansar, and those who followed them with good conduct, Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the supreme success.” (Surah Taubah: 100). In Durri Manthoor, many ayahs and ahadith are mentioned which explain this ayah. In one of the narrations of Imam Auzai, he says Atia bin Hasan, Makhul, Ubda Bin Abi Lababa, Qasim, and others heard from a large number of Sahaba RA that, ‘When this ayah was revealed, the Blessed Prophet [saws] said, ‘This is for my Ummah, and there is no anger after Allah is pleased.’
Those Sufia who come under the definition of the hadith of ihsan also fall under this ayah. This subject has been explained extensively in the book Al-I’tidaal. Regarding this matter, I will only add that those who make a career of finding faults in scholars and are proud of it, only hurt themselves not the ulema they criticize. And even if they could hurt the ulema the most they could do is to deprive them of worldly things (i.e. material possessions) or dignity and respect, all of which are temporary and insignificant. Of course, this is only possible if they have power over decreasing whatever is written in their (ulema) destiny (which they do not). In essence, their criticism and prejudices against the ulema backfire on them.
The Blessed Prophet [saws] said, ‘He who does not respect our elders, is not kind to our children, and does not value our scholars, is not from amongst us.’
Some consider themselves of this Ummah; however, according to this hadith, the Blessed Prophet [saws] wants them to have nothing to do with this Ummah. The Blessed Prophet :saws: said, ‘Those who carry the revelations (e.g. the scholars) are the wali of Allah.’"

The great faqih and Muhaddith, Shaikh Abdul-Hai R.A.writes in his Fatawa:

 "The fuqaha decree that one who swears at the Auliya or ulema due to his contempt for knowledge is a kafir. If there is another reason for his contempt of the scholars, he will be at the very least a fasiq or fajir (sinner) and will be deserving of the wrath of Allah in this world and in the hereafter.” 
He further corroborates this with the statements of the fuqaha, verses of the Qur’an, and the ahadith.

The door of Tawba is open still. May Allah guide us all.
 -Excerpted from the book 'Consequences of Debasing The Auliya-Allah' By Shaykh Dr. Ismail Memon

Mahram & Ghayr Mahram relations

Mahram & Ghayr Mahram relations

Composed by Maulana Sultan, UK


Allah Ta’aala has given us a religion called Islam. Not just as a religion, but also as a complete way of life. A system of life which tackles and provides solutions for every immoral aspect of life and sets boundaries so that mankind does not exceed nor fall below the levels required to live a healthy, balanced and pure life and above all, a life in obedience to Allah. 
One of the aspects of life covered in Islam is the interacting of males and females. As mentioned above, this aspect of life also has boundaries set in place. With certain things in life, there must be boundaries so that we can know the extent of what we can and cannot do since we are not wild and reckless but rather, civilised people. Also so that we know how far we can go in a matter before problems occur.

Definition & Of Mahram & Ghayr Mahram

With regards to the interacting of males and females, the males are classed into two groups.
  • ‘Mahrams’ and
  • ‘Ghayr Mahrams’
This category refers to all those males whom a woman cannot marry at anytime in her life whatsoever. In other word a male who is forbidden permanently, forever (i.e. one’s father, brother or son etc).

Ghayr Mahrams’:
This category refers to all those males whom a woman is permitted to marry (e.g. a cousin or just a random Muslim male) or a male whom it is forbidden to marry at that moment in time but may become permissible to marry in the future due to a change in circumstances. In other word a male who is temporarily forbidden (e.g. a Muslim female who is already married is temporarily forbidden to marry another Muslim male as long as she is married. But once she divorces her current husband and passes her ‘Iddah’ (waiting period after divorce), she may now marry another Muslim male and he is no longer forbidden for her).   

Importance Of Mahram & Ghayr Mahram

Often, in Islamic law, the above categories are required to establish certain Islamic rules. This is why one will find that the above categories are sometimes conditions, requirements or the basis of several Islamic laws.
Example 1:
Regards the Islamic topic on marriage, the above categories i.e. being a ‘Mahram’ or ‘Ghayr Mahram’ define who a person can and cannot marry.
Example 2:
Likewise regards the Islamic topic on ‘Hijaab’ and whom a woman must cover herself a certain amount in front of, again will be determined by whether the male is a ‘Mahram’ or not.
Example 3:
Also, with regards to the permissibility of women travelling more than the distance of a ‘Shar’ee safar’ (Islamic journey approximately 48 miles from one’s city’s border) depends on whether she can find a ‘Mahram’ to accompany her or not. If found then her travelling that distance or more is permissible otherwise not.
Example 4:
Similarly one of the main conditions, which make ‘Hajj’ compulsory for a woman, is the presence of a ‘Mahram’ with her throughout her journey. Again, if she does not find a ‘Mahram’ to accompany her during her journey to do ‘Hajj’, then she is not permitted to go do ‘Hajj’ nor is it compulsory upon her until she finds a ‘Mahram’ that can accompany her.
As it is obvious from the above examples, the knowledge of the term ‘Mahram’ and ‘Ghayr Mahram’ are very important, as they are the conditions or the basis of several Islamic rules as shown above, hence all the more reason to know and understand who is a ‘Mahram’ and who is not.   

Overall Purpose of Mahram & Ghayr Mahram

As mentioned above, the terms ‘Mahram’ and ‘Ghayr Mahram’ play an important role within Islam under different Islamic topics but regardless of this its purposes within these different topics are similar. In other words the purposes of this separation of ‘Mahrams’ and ‘Ghayr Mahrams’ whether it be during matters of ‘Hijaab’, an Islamic journey, marriage or even ‘Hajj’, are similar. 

There are many purposes and wisdom behind this separation, a few of which will be mentioned.

Firstly, one of the main purposes of this separation is to safeguard people from immoral acts that occur because of unnecessary interacting and intermingling of certain males and females. Allah the All-knowing, the Most wise, knows the causes of corruption and shameless acts and helps people safeguard themselves from these by setting rules in place. Society struggles to deal with corruption, immoral acts and problems such as arguments, affairs, trust between husband and wife, attacks on women and so on. Whereas Islam tackles these problems from their root i.e. unnecessary interacting and intermingling of certain males and females, which without doubt is the cause of many problems in society. For example, many arguments are caused through unnecessary interacting and intermingling of certain males and females. Likewise affairs occur due to unnecessary interacting and intermingling of certain males and females. Also, often a lack of trust between husband and wife is created because of things that happen during unnecessary interacting and intermingling of certain males and females. Then later on, a lack of trust leads to arguments. 

Similarly, attacks that are carried out on women are mostly brought about through unnecessary interacting and intermingling with males. People constantly search themselves for a way or system that they think will solve these problems and fail to follow the system given by Allah that actually deals with these problems since he is All-knowing, Most wise. 
Another purpose and wisdom behind separating ‘Mahrams’ and ‘Ghayr Mahrams’ is that it protects the honour and chastity of women. Through unnecessary interacting or intermingling of women and men, if a woman falls prey to corruption and commits a shameless act, then this will be the cause of her losing her real honour and chastity. In this modern day and age, society wishes to grant women freedom, honour and rank but fail to realise that real honour is not achieved by granting women freedom but rather by protecting them from the corruption and shameless acts of life, which Islam does, if followed. Even women themselves have fallen for this false idea of honour and try to fight for more freedom and rights, thinking that this will give them honour and rank. Islam is often criticized for its degrading and lack of honour of women, but as shown above, this could not be any further from the truth. Women want honour and rank and it is what Allah wants for them also but their idea of how to achieve it is different from that of Allah’s. If women wish for honour and rank, then remember that honour lies in the obedience of the laws of Allah, who himself is the one who gives honour. 

“…and you (Allah) grant honour to whom you will and you disgrace whom you will.”
(Surah: 3 Al-Imraan, Verse: 26)

Lastly, another wisdom behind this separation is that it serves as a boundary to maintain a balanced and pure society and religious life, which in turn will help a person focus on his or her sole purpose in life i.e. the obedience and worship of Allah. Wherever the unnecessary interacting and intermingling of genders is found, then one will clearly see that without doubt, this is something that diverts a person’s attention from the purpose of life and the fulfilment of one’s Islamic duties as well as from the remembrance of Allah. Hence, by creating these restrictions, Allah aims to help us focus on the reality of life and bring this to our attention. Once a person understands this then these restrictions no longer seem like restrictions but rather a mercy from Allah.

Will One Then Not Take Heed?   

Allah the All-knowing, the Most wise, out of his mercy has given us these laws to follow only for our benefit and success and so that we do not stray from the straight path and fall into corruption as people before us have done. Should we then not be truly grateful? If so, then we should show our gratitude through our actions by obeying Allah. Whether we take heed and become obedient to him by following the laws set by him or not, Allah will not be affected the slightest. He does not need nor depend on our obedience nor does he benefit from it. The only ones who will benefit will be ourselves with success in this world and the hereafter…if only we knew.  

“Indeed, this is no less than a reminder to mankind, for whomsoever wishes to walk straight.”
(Surah: 81 At-Takweer, Verse: 27-28)

Who is more merciful to mankind than one who continues to help those who are obedient to him as well as those who are disobedient to him but gains nothing from it? 

List Of Mahrams & Ghayr Mahrams

From a male’s perspective:


[Women he is permanently forbidden to marry Mahrams and with whom Islamic restrictions do not apply are]:

  • Father’s wives
  • Mothers and above (i.e. grandmothers, great grandmothers etc, maternal or paternal)
  • Daughters and below (i.e. granddaughters, great granddaughters etc)
  • Sisters (regardless of whether it be one’s real sister, sister with whom your mothers are the same but fathers different or whether it be a sister with whom your fathers are the same but mothers different)
  • Aunts (i.e. one’s mother’s/father’s sister, again regardless of whether it be their real sister, sister with whom their mothers are the same but fathers different or whether it be their sister with whom their fathers are the same but mothers different)
  • Nieces (i.e. daughters of brother/sister regardless of whether they be one’s real brother/sister, brother/sister with whom your mothers are the same but fathers different or brother/sister with whom your fathers are the same but mothers different)
  • Foster Mother (i.e. lady by whom one was breast fed before the age of two)
  • Foster Sister (i.e. a female who was breast fed by the same lady as one was)
  • Mother-in-law and above (i.e. grandmother-in-law, great grandmother-in-law etc, maternal or paternal)
  • Daughter of wife from another marriage (with the condition that both husband and wife have been alone together)
  • Daughter-in-law and below (i.e. son’s wife, grandson’s wife etc)
  • Wife (not forbidden in marriage but is an exception therefore no restrictions apply with one’s wife)

Ghayr Mahrams:

[From a male’s perspective, women he is permitted to marry or who are temporarily forbidden and with whom Islamic restrictions apply are]:
  • These include all those not listed above
(The list above and below is a summary of Surah: 4 An-Nisaa, Verse: 22-23 & Surah: 24 An-Noor, Verse: 31)
Please note that regards to one’s foster mother, there is a narration of the Prophet, which mentions that whoever is made forbidden through genealogical relation is forbidden through fosterage. In simple terms, one’s foster mother is like one’s mother and her children become one’s foster brothers and sisters and her father becomes one’s foster grandfather and similarly all those types of people normally forbidden are also forbidden in fosterage (i.e. foster father/mother, foster brother/sister, foster uncle/aunt, foster daughter/son etc)
Please note there are a few more detailed rules regards the above and below but have not been mentioned in an attempt to keep this article simple. Where detail has been given, then it is in order to answer common and important queries.
From a female’s perspective:

Men she is permanently forbidden to marry are the opposite of the above since if marriage is forbidden, then it is forbidden both ways i.e. if a female is forbidden for a certain man then that man is forbidden for her also. You can never say that a certain female is forbidden for me but I am not forbidden for her! Also, those with whom Islamic restrictions do not apply are:

Mahrams (i.e. forbidden to marry permanently forever at anytime):
  • Step father (with the condition that both step father and one’s mother have been alone together)
  • Fathers and above (i.e. grandfathers, great grandfathers etc, maternal or paternal)
  • Sons and below (i.e. grandsons, great grandsons etc)
  • Brothers (regardless of whether it be one’s real brother, brother with whom your mothers are the same but fathers different or whether it be a brother with whom your fathers are the same but mothers different)
  • Uncles (i.e. one’s mother’s/father’s brother, again regardless of whether it be their real brother, brother with whom their mothers are the same but fathers different or whether it be their brother with whom their fathers are the same but mothers different)
  • Nephews (i.e. sons of brother/sister regardless of whether they be one’s real brother/sister, brother/sister with whom your mothers are the same but fathers different or brother/sister with whom your fathers are the same but mothers different)
  • Foster son (i.e. a boy who a lady has breast fed before the age of two)
  • Foster Brother (i.e. a male who was breast fed by the same lady as one was)
  • Father-in-law and above (i.e. grandfather-in-law, great grandfather-in-law etc, maternal or paternal) 
  • Husband’s sons
  • Son-in-law and below (i.e. daughter’s husband, granddaughter’s husband etc)
  • Husband (not forbidden in marriage but as an exception is classified as a ‘Mahram’ and therefore no restrictions apply with one’s husband)
    From a female’s perspective, men she is permitted to marry or who are temporarily forbidden and are those with whom Islamic restrictions apply:
Ghayr Mahrams (i.e. permitted to marry or temporarily forbidden):
              These include all those not listed above.

[Note:  Temporarily forbidden in marraige are-
-All the married women.
-Combining in marriage at the same time a woman with her sister or her paternal aunt or her maternal aunt or the maternal aunt of her father or the maternal aunt of her mother, or the paternal aunt of her father, or the paternal aunt of her mother is forbidden.]
[The charts are taken from